# Interview Questions

# Introduction

  • Software Engineering 17+ years
  • Generalist
  • Different domains, approach is technology isn’t the challenging part, its translating the business domain to solveable problems, that use technology

# Behavioral Questions

  • How have you worked with product and design

  • You took someone’s engineering vision and brought it to life?

  • Have you ever had to navigate a situation where you disagreed with a colleague or team member on a technical decision or project direction? How did you handle the conflict, and what was the outcome?

    Thank you for the question. I recall a project where my team and I built an ETL tool for a client with two decades of unstructured data. Our goal was to structure this data for clarity and consistency. Using Rails and Active Admin, we quickly set up a relational database solution that worked smoothly. It allowed the client’s data specialist to efficiently categorize records, like distinguishing between wedding gowns and bridesmaid dresses.

    However, a challenge arose when one of their lead engineers recommended transitioning to MongoDB, believing it would handle the data load better. However, we needed metrics suggesting this was necessary. We advised against this switch, understanding the strengths of relational databases for our data structuring.

    Regrettably, the decision was made to switch. Over the next three weeks, we restructured the backend for MongoDB. This led to complications as we lost many previous functionalities with the Rails tools. Even the end user found the new system more tedious, and some of the database queries timed out due to the nature of MongoDB’s document-based structure.

    To resolve the issues, the client brought in consultants from Atlas, a company specializing in MongoDB. These consultants confirmed that while our implementation of MongoDB was correct, there needed to be a better tool for our objectives.

    This experience taught me a valuable lesson: sometimes, even when you provide a clear rationale against a decision, it may still be overridden for various reasons. The key is adapting, persevering, and prioritizing the product’s functionality over personal or collective preferences. Ultimately, we must engineer for the product’s best outcome.

  • Technology evolves rapidly. How do you stay up-to-date with industry trends and new technologies, and how have you applied this knowledge to improve your work or team’s processes?

    Staying updated with the ever-evolving technology landscape is imperative. To do so, I’ve often approached learning new technologies with a unique method: reverse engineering. Let me share an example to illustrate.

    I have always been drawn to understanding the core of technologies. So, when I wanted to learn Lua, instead of starting with conventional tutorials, I took a project I was familiar with, underscore.js. I aimed to reimplement its functions in Lua. I began by examining a function in underscore.js, looked at its test cases, and then tried translating them to Lua and implementing the function. While this approach doesn’t necessarily explain the rationale behind the original developer’s choices, it lets me grasp the “shape” or the core structure of the technology. This deep dive helps me discern if issues arise due to genuine bugs or misuse on my part.

    Diving into the code, breaking it apart, and trying to piece it together in a different environment provides profound insights. While I focus predominantly on code, the same principle applies across various domains, databases, or AI tools. Tutorials might offer a glimpse of a tool’s potential, but to truly understand its depth, breaking it apart and exploring its foundations is the way to go.

    Moreover, I always encourage my team to adopt a similar hands-on approach. When a teammate grapples with a technological challenge, I often suggest pairing up. But instead of directing, I prompt them with questions, allowing them to navigate and understand the tool themselves. It’s a method of guiding without imposing, allowing them to develop an intuitive understanding, which I’ve found far more effective than spoon-feeding solutions.

  • What is the most technically challenging?

    During interviews, I’m often asked about the most technically challenging problem I’ve tackled. Instead of viewing these challenges as singular large problems, I perceive them as a series of smaller issues. Tackling them in steps prevents feeling overwhelmed. My problem-solving approach involves measuring, evaluating, and iterating – a methodology I believe I’ve internalized from agile practices.

    For instance, while working at Realtor.com, I observed numerous 500 errors in an inherited application. These errors adversely affected users, often preventing them from logging in or completing specific actions. Built on AWS, I was confident that the platform provided metrics to understand the issue better.

    During a significant error event, I delved into our load balancer’s metrics dashboard. I observed that connection timeouts predominantly caused these 500 errors, and not just bad gateway responses. As an initial solution, I modified the scaling rules to allocate more application instances. This strategy decreased the frequency of errors, but they continued to occur.

    Further investigation during the next error event revealed that every significant error event correlated with a scaling event – either scaling up or down based on the number of Virtual Machine (VM) instances running. To rectify this, I adjusted the VM scaling to be less aggressive. This meant scaling down one VM over a more extended period and scaling up more aggressively. The number of 500 errors did drop, but they didn’t completely vanish.

    By drilling down even further into our metrics, I noticed an anomaly during VM scaling down events. A large number of our application’s containers were being stopped and restarted. I discovered that AWS’s ECS, their container management service, had an aggressive algorithm aiming to reduce the number of VMs and save costs. This algorithm introduced a bug where, during scaling down, it would attempt to reshuffle and restart containers to fit them into fewer VMs. This led to temporary 500 errors, as the load balancer wasn’t appropriately informed about these restarts.

    After additional fine-tuning, we reduced these errors from hundreds of thousands within specific time frames to a few hundred per week. As a bonus, optimizing our scaling rules and understanding our application better led to monthly savings of around $10,000. This challenge was not just about fixing an error, but also about understanding the system holistically and finding cost-saving efficiencies in the process.

  • Reflect on a mistake or failure in your career. What did you learn from it, and how did you use that experience to improve your skills and decision-making in subsequent projects?

    One of the most challenging aspects of my career has been effective communication. A common stereotype associated with individuals like myself is a lack of social skills. There were instances when I conveyed something, but the tone in which it was received wasn’t the one I intended. This misinterpretation often led to misunderstandings, with people thinking I had said something offensive. These moments were misreadings of my intention rather than an actual lack of empathy on my part.

    One particular challenge I faced was ensuring that my tone in written communications accurately reflected my intentions. I wanted my messages to be direct but also empathetic. To improve this, I sought guidance from mentors known for their excellent communication skills. They provided invaluable feedback, teaching me techniques like writing a message, stepping away for a few minutes, and then revisiting it to ensure clarity and empathy. This approach helped immensely.

    Additionally, I made use of tools like Grammarly’s premium package to refine my writing. It helped in identifying words that might come across as aggressive or unintentionally rude. Moreover, it rectified some of my persistent grammatical errors, like often omitting words because I believed I had already typed them.

    Beyond tools, I invested in my communication skills by reading books on the subject. One influential read was on nonviolent communication. Although my messages were never aggressive, the principles of this methodology helped me frame my communication more effectively, ensuring that my tone was always clear and friendly.

    In summary, my journey has been about learning to articulate my thoughts clearly while also being empathetic and considerate of the reader’s perspective. This understanding has been instrumental in both my personal and professional growth.

  • Can you describe a challenging situation involving a team or group of people that you helped resolve?

    Certainly! One of the most challenging situations I faced was when my team was tasked with phasing out a product that many in the company had come to rely upon, even though it was problematic. The product had grown organically over time and was riddled with issues, such as a thousand-line YAML configuration file that made it very challenging to use. Although it was problematic, many users, both internal and external, were hesitant to let go because it was the only solution available at the time.

    Our primary goal was to transition users to a newer, more effective product. The first step was to establish trust. We initiated dialogues with our customers, typically involving our design, product, and engineering teams, in what were essentially trust-building sessions. These weren’t just user interviews; they were genuine conversations to assure users that we were invested in their needs and were actively working on a more robust solution.

    Interestingly, the trust-building process wasn’t just external. Internally, there had been a longstanding tension between the support side of our organization and R&D. The support team had attempted in the past to get R&D’s assistance on the older product but felt neglected. There was a lot of historical baggage to address.

    Once we built those relationships and trust, we outlined our plan: sunsetting the old product while ensuring a smooth transition to the new one. We set clear boundaries – we wouldn’t support the older product unless there was a top-priority issue that directly hindered someone’s work. To ensure our new product met user needs, we incorporated feedback from both an external customer and an internal user into our MVP development process. This approach not only made the product better but also further ingrained the trust we had been building.

    The result? After a period of persistent trust-building, collaboration, and clear communication, we successfully transitioned users to the new product. Today, the product is not only stable and efficient, but the support issues have also significantly decreased. This journey underscored the importance of trust, understanding, and consistent communication in overcoming organizational challenges.